1.Virsh简介

KVM虚拟机有两种管理办法,一种是使用图形化工具virt-manager来管理,一种是使用命令行工具virsh,通过这个来实现虚拟机的常用操作:启动、关闭、暂停、以及硬件网卡、硬盘、CPU和内存的管理。

2.Virsh基本操作

2.1 查看虚拟机

查看虚拟机:

virsh list

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查看所有虚拟机:

virsh list --all

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2.2 启动虚拟机

启动虚拟机

virsh start vm01

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2.3 关闭虚拟机

关闭虚拟机

virsh shutdown vm01

有的时候就无法关闭虚拟机,就需要强制关闭,也就等同于拔掉电源!

virsh destroy vm01

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2.4 挂起/恢复虚拟机

挂起虚拟机也就是暂停虚拟机。

virsh suspend vm01

恢复虚拟机

virsh resume vm01

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2.5 设置自启动/关闭自启动虚拟机

设置自启动,就是在硬件启动后虚拟机自动启动。

virsh autostart vm01

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关闭自启动:

virsh autostart vm01 --disable

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2.6 查看虚拟机信息

查看虚拟机信息

virsh dominfo vm01

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查看虚拟机配置文件

virsh dumpxml vm01

内容是相当多!

root@one-virtual-machine:/# virsh dumpxml vm01
<domain type='kvm' id='5'>
  <name>vm01</name>
  <uuid>ceea8a53-d97c-4a90-8486-5840300e8e07</uuid>
  <metadata>
    <libosinfo:libosinfo xmlns:libosinfo="http://libosinfo.org/xmlns/libvirt/domain/1.0">
      <libosinfo:os id="http://debian.org/debian/10"/>
    </libosinfo:libosinfo>
  </metadata>
  <memory unit='KiB'>524288</memory>
  <currentMemory unit='KiB'>524288</currentMemory>
  <vcpu placement='static'>1</vcpu>
  <resource>
    <partition>/machine</partition>
  </resource>
  <os>
    <type arch='x86_64' machine='pc-q35-4.2'>hvm</type>
    <bootmenu enable='yes'/>
  </os>
  <features>
    <acpi/>
    <apic/>
    <vmport state='off'/>
  </features>
  <cpu mode='custom' match='exact' check='full'>
    <model fallback='forbid'>Skylake-Client-IBRS</model>
    <vendor>Intel</vendor>
    <feature policy='require' name='ss'/>
    <feature policy='require' name='vmx'/>
    <feature policy='require' name='hypervisor'/>
    <feature policy='require' name='tsc_adjust'/>
    <feature policy='require' name='clflushopt'/>
    <feature policy='require' name='umip'/>
    <feature policy='require' name='md-clear'/>
    <feature policy='require' name='stibp'/>
    <feature policy='require' name='arch-capabilities'/>
    <feature policy='require' name='ssbd'/>
    <feature policy='require' name='xsaves'/>
    <feature policy='require' name='ibpb'/>
    <feature policy='require' name='amd-stibp'/>
    <feature policy='require' name='amd-ssbd'/>
    <feature policy='require' name='rsba'/>
    <feature policy='require' name='skip-l1dfl-vmentry'/>
    <feature policy='require' name='pschange-mc-no'/>
    <feature policy='disable' name='hle'/>
    <feature policy='disable' name='erms'/>
    <feature policy='disable' name='rtm'/>
    <feature policy='disable' name='mpx'/>
  </cpu>
  <clock offset='utc'>
    <timer name='rtc' tickpolicy='catchup'/>
    <timer name='pit' tickpolicy='delay'/>
    <timer name='hpet' present='no'/>
  </clock>
  <on_poweroff>destroy</on_poweroff>
  <on_reboot>restart</on_reboot>
  <on_crash>destroy</on_crash>
  <pm>
    <suspend-to-mem enabled='no'/>
    <suspend-to-disk enabled='no'/>
  </pm>
  <devices>
    <emulator>/usr/bin/qemu-system-x86_64</emulator>
    <disk type='file' device='disk'>
      <driver name='qemu' type='qcow2'/>
      <source file='/var/lib/libvirt/images/vm01.qcow2' index='2'/>
      <backingStore/>
      <target dev='vda' bus='virtio'/>
      <boot order='2'/>
      <alias name='virtio-disk0'/>
      <address type='pci' domain='0x0000' bus='0x04' slot='0x00' function='0x0'/>
    </disk>
    <disk type='file' device='cdrom'>
      <driver name='qemu' type='raw'/>
      <source file='/home/one/下载/MX-19.3_x64.iso' index='1'/>
      <backingStore/>
      <target dev='sda' bus='sata'/>
      <readonly/>
      <boot order='1'/>
      <alias name='sata0-0-0'/>
      <address type='drive' controller='0' bus='0' target='0' unit='0'/>
    </disk>
    <controller type='usb' index='0' model='qemu-xhci' ports='15'>
      <alias name='usb'/>
      <address type='pci' domain='0x0000' bus='0x02' slot='0x00' function='0x0'/>
    </controller>
    <controller type='sata' index='0'>
      <alias name='ide'/>
      <address type='pci' domain='0x0000' bus='0x00' slot='0x1f' function='0x2'/>
    </controller>
    <controller type='pci' index='0' model='pcie-root'>
      <alias name='pcie.0'/>
    </controller>
    <controller type='pci' index='1' model='pcie-root-port'>
      <model name='pcie-root-port'/>
      <target chassis='1' port='0x10'/>
      <alias name='pci.1'/>
      <address type='pci' domain='0x0000' bus='0x00' slot='0x02' function='0x0' multifunction='on'/>
    </controller>
    <controller type='pci' index='2' model='pcie-root-port'>
      <model name='pcie-root-port'/>
      <target chassis='2' port='0x11'/>
      <alias name='pci.2'/>
      <address type='pci' domain='0x0000' bus='0x00' slot='0x02' function='0x1'/>
    </controller>
    <controller type='pci' index='3' model='pcie-root-port'>
      <model name='pcie-root-port'/>
      <target chassis='3' port='0x12'/>
      <alias name='pci.3'/>
      <address type='pci' domain='0x0000' bus='0x00' slot='0x02' function='0x2'/>
    </controller>
    <controller type='pci' index='4' model='pcie-root-port'>
      <model name='pcie-root-port'/>
      <target chassis='4' port='0x13'/>
      <alias name='pci.4'/>
      <address type='pci' domain='0x0000' bus='0x00' slot='0x02' function='0x3'/>
    </controller>
    <controller type='pci' index='5' model='pcie-root-port'>
      <model name='pcie-root-port'/>
      <target chassis='5' port='0x14'/>
      <alias name='pci.5'/>
      <address type='pci' domain='0x0000' bus='0x00' slot='0x02' function='0x4'/>
    </controller>
    <controller type='pci' index='6' model='pcie-root-port'>
      <model name='pcie-root-port'/>
      <target chassis='6' port='0x15'/>
      <alias name='pci.6'/>
      <address type='pci' domain='0x0000' bus='0x00' slot='0x02' function='0x5'/>
    </controller>
    <controller type='pci' index='7' model='pcie-root-port'>
      <model name='pcie-root-port'/>
      <target chassis='7' port='0x16'/>
      <alias name='pci.7'/>
      <address type='pci' domain='0x0000' bus='0x00' slot='0x02' function='0x6'/>
    </controller>
    <controller type='virtio-serial' index='0'>
      <alias name='virtio-serial0'/>
      <address type='pci' domain='0x0000' bus='0x03' slot='0x00' function='0x0'/>
    </controller>
    <interface type='network'>
      <mac address='52:54:00:5f:86:02'/>
      <source network='default' portid='246cb0da-b82f-4d55-85ee-ed31f1579777' bridge='virbr0'/>
      <target dev='vnet1'/>
      <model type='virtio'/>
      <alias name='net0'/>
      <address type='pci' domain='0x0000' bus='0x01' slot='0x00' function='0x0'/>
    </interface>
    <serial type='pty'>
      <source path='/dev/pts/2'/>
      <target type='isa-serial' port='0'>
        <model name='isa-serial'/>
      </target>
      <alias name='serial0'/>
    </serial>
    <console type='pty' tty='/dev/pts/2'>
      <source path='/dev/pts/2'/>
      <target type='serial' port='0'/>
      <alias name='serial0'/>
    </console>
    <channel type='unix'>
      <source mode='bind' path='/var/lib/libvirt/qemu/channel/target/domain-5-vm01/org.qemu.guest_agent.0'/>
      <target type='virtio' name='org.qemu.guest_agent.0' state='disconnected'/>
      <alias name='channel0'/>
      <address type='virtio-serial' controller='0' bus='0' port='1'/>
    </channel>
    <channel type='spicevmc'>
      <target type='virtio' name='com.redhat.spice.0' state='connected'/>
      <alias name='channel1'/>
      <address type='virtio-serial' controller='0' bus='0' port='2'/>
    </channel>
    <input type='tablet' bus='usb'>
      <alias name='input0'/>
      <address type='usb' bus='0' port='1'/>
    </input>
    <input type='mouse' bus='ps2'>
      <alias name='input1'/>
    </input>
    <input type='keyboard' bus='ps2'>
      <alias name='input2'/>
    </input>
    <graphics type='spice' port='5901' autoport='yes' listen='127.0.0.1'>
      <listen type='address' address='127.0.0.1'/>
      <image compression='off'/>
    </graphics>
    <sound model='ich9'>
      <alias name='sound0'/>
      <address type='pci' domain='0x0000' bus='0x00' slot='0x1b' function='0x0'/>
    </sound>
    <video>
      <model type='qxl' ram='65536' vram='65536' vgamem='16384' heads='1' primary='yes'/>
      <alias name='video0'/>
      <address type='pci' domain='0x0000' bus='0x00' slot='0x01' function='0x0'/>
    </video>
    <redirdev bus='usb' type='spicevmc'>
      <alias name='redir0'/>
      <address type='usb' bus='0' port='2'/>
    </redirdev>
    <redirdev bus='usb' type='spicevmc'>
      <alias name='redir1'/>
      <address type='usb' bus='0' port='3'/>
    </redirdev>
    <memballoon model='virtio'>
      <alias name='balloon0'/>
      <address type='pci' domain='0x0000' bus='0x05' slot='0x00' function='0x0'/>
    </memballoon>
    <rng model='virtio'>
      <backend model='random'>/dev/urandom</backend>
      <alias name='rng0'/>
      <address type='pci' domain='0x0000' bus='0x06' slot='0x00' function='0x0'/>
    </rng>
  </devices>
  <seclabel type='dynamic' model='apparmor' relabel='yes'>
    <label>libvirt-ceea8a53-d97c-4a90-8486-5840300e8e07</label>
    <imagelabel>libvirt-ceea8a53-d97c-4a90-8486-5840300e8e07</imagelabel>
  </seclabel>
  <seclabel type='dynamic' model='dac' relabel='yes'>
    <label>+64055:+108</label>
    <imagelabel>+64055:+108</imagelabel>
  </seclabel>
</domain>

root@one-virtual-machine:/#

2.7 删除虚拟机

删除虚拟机有三种:

只是删除虚拟机,但虚拟机文件还在。
virsh undefined vm01  

删除虚拟机,并删除磁盘镜像文件不包含镜像文件。
virsh undefined vm01  --storage /var/lib/libvirt/images/vm01.qcow2 

删除虚拟机,并删除所有磁盘文件包含镜像文件。
virsh undefined vm01  --remove-all-storage

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Q.E.D.

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